How to Make a Beautiful Dining Room, with Beautiful Oscillating Table UDF and Ottoman
Edward Wortley Montagu (diplomat) of ottomanSir Edward Wortley Montagu (8 February 1678 22 January 1761) was British Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, husband of the writer Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and father of the writer and traveller Edward Wortley Montagu.Son of Sidney Wortley Montagu and grandson of Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich, Wortley Montagu was educated at Westminster School, Trinity College, Cambridge (1693) and trained in the law at the Middle Temple (1693). He was called to the bar in 1699 and entered the Inner Temple in 1706.He was best known for his correspondence with, seduction of, and elopement with Mary Pierrepont, daughter of Evelyn Pierrepont, 1st Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull. They married in 1712. Edward succeeded his father in 1727, inheriting Wortley Hall, near Barnsley in South Yorkshire.Edward was a prominent Whig politician, and was MP for Huntingdon before eventually becoming a Lord Commissioner of the Treasury from 1714 to 1715.He made Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire and elected the representative of the Levant Company on the nomination of King George I on 10 May 1716. He arrived with his wife at Adrianople (now known as Edirne) on 13 March 1717. As Ambassador, he was charged with pursuing the ongoing negotiations between the Ottomans and the Habsburg Empire. Unsuccessful in his position, he was not made Ambassador to the Ottoman Porte in Constantinople before he was recalled in October 1717. He left Turkey on 15 July 1718 and traveled for some time in the East. Upon his return to England from Constantinople, he fell out with the Whig hierarchy but remained a Member of Parliament for Huntingdon (17221734) and Peterborough (1734 until his death in 1761).From 1757 to 1761, he remodelled Wortley Hall, adding the East Wing. On his death, he left the hall and a large fortune to his daughter Mary, having in 1755 cut off his son Edward with only a small allowance. Mary married the future Prime Minister, John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute.------Rav akesi of ottomanRav akesi was a "rabbi tax" paid by Jewish communities in the Ottoman Empire. The origins of rav akesi are unclear; it has been suggested that it was one of two taxes imposed specifically on Jews, and that it may have developed in parallel with the authority of a senior rabbi in Istanbul, who was at nominally a representative and judge for Jewish communities in the Ottoman empire, although their authority may not have extended far beyond Istanbul.It has been suggested that Mehmet II imposed the tax in return for separate representation of Jews after 1455, as part of a broader effort to rebuild and revive Istanbul; this may also have served to undermine the Greek patriarchy. Under the Ottoman empire there was, at time, friction between "Greeks" and "Jews"; the authorities may at times have favoured one over the other.Although rav akesi was a cash tax, rather than a tax in kind, it could be hypothecated to provide specific goods; tax records for 1655 show that the rav akesi in Monastir (Bitola) was a significant source of funding of drapery for Janissaries; the tax official responsible for purchases would be the same person responsible for collecting the tax.Non-Muslims were usually taxed at a higher rate, overall, in the Ottoman empire, thanks to taxes such as rav akesi and ispence. Jews in particular may have been singled out to pay higher rates of ispence. The Porte was well aware of this - and even aware that this would tempt non-Muslims to convert; Bayezit II ruled that courts should treat non-Muslims more leniently (including such measures as lower fines), "so that the poll-tax payers shall not vanish".As with other taxes in the Ottoman empire, rav akesi could be affected by a complex patchwork of local rules and exemptions, including muafiyet; the Jews of Selanik (Thessaloniki) were among those exempted from taxes by a muafname after the city was conquered by Murad II.------Engagements in Kurdish organizations of ottomanFollowing the Young Turks Revolution against Sultan Abdulhamid II he was allowed to return to Istanbul and in 1908 he became a founding member of the Kurd Society for Cooperation and Progress. At the time he established close ties with Abdulkadir Ubeydullah, as he was also a member of the Kurdish movement. But the Society was banned in 1909 by the Committee for Union and Progress (CUP) as it didn't see any benefit of a Kurdish organization. In 1918 he was elected the Vice President of the Society for the Elevation of Kurdistan, opposing the election of Abdulkadir as President. But the disputes continued as Abdulkadir advocated for a autonomy within a future Turkish state, as Emin Ali Bedir Khan was in favor for Kurdish independence but also the recognition of the state by a sultan as a Caliph. Emin Ali was also an active participant in the negotiations of the Paris Peace Conference. He maintained the view that the province of Van should be included in a Kurdistan, opposing Serif Pasha who represented the Society for the Elevation of Kurdistan at the Peace Negotiations in Paris. He wrote a to the president of the peace conference in Paris and also showed a map, what according to him should include a future Kurdistan to the British representative in Istanbul, Richard Webb.Emin Ali would go on to establish the Society for Kurdish Social Organizations which advocated for an independent Kurdistan. He didn't give up on the Kurdish cause and established ties with Greek diplomats who's support he was able to gain. Then he and his son Celadet Bedir Khan requested also the support of the British, to facilitate a Kurdish uprising in Mosul, but they declined to support the cause. As it was imminent that a Turkish republic was to be created, he went into exile in Egypt, where he passed away in 1926.------As Valide Sultan of ottomanAfter Abdul Hamid II ascended the throne in 1876, she was given the position of Valide Sultan by him, and headed the harem. Abdul Hamid told her categorically not to involve herself in politics. Thus, unlike many of her predecessors, she was not active in politics..Three days before Abdul Hamid became Sultan, he went to Perestu Kadn's villa and kissed her hand, acknowledging her as his Valide Sultan Queen mother and it was from there that he proceeded to Topkap Palace for the ceremony of homage at his accession. Perestu loved this house. Now and again she would want to go there, but because Abdul Hamid absolutely wanted her present in the palace he would withhold permission.In 1885, during the visit of King Oscar II and Queen Sophia of Sweden to the Ottoman Empire, she received the Swedish queen, who was allowed to visit the Imperial harem.The internal matters of the palace were in her charge. But she did not want to hurt anyone's feelings in the least, did not interfere in the matters, sought justice and equity, and because she was firmly religious she passed a good deal of time in prayers. She possessed good, high moral standards, which led her to help the poor and needy.. Perestu was known as a fair and compassionate queen mother. She headed the imperial harem with love and devotion. All the people in the palace loved and admired her. She was the last woman in Ottoman history to hold the title Valide Sultan.Abdul Hamid particularly wanted Perestu to attend the Royal Mosque Procession every Friday. Sometimes after the ceremony she would secretly slip out to her villa, but when Abdul Hamid learned of it, he immediately aided set off from the palace with a carriage and brought her back..In 1891, Perestu commissioned a fountain (sebil) in Bala Tekkesi, Silivrikap and another fountain (eme) in the same place in 1895.------Military career of ottomanGleich began his military career in 1886 in the Dragoner-Regiment Knigin Olga Nr. 25 in Ludwigsburg. In 1890 he was transferred to the General Staff. In 1902-05 he served as a squadron commander in the 13. Dragoner-Regiment in Metz. Thereafter he was again seconded to the General Staff, where his exceptional linguistic abilities marked him out for overseas service. In 1912 he was assigned as German Military Attach to the High Command of the Greek Army, where he observed victorious Greek military operations against Ottoman forces on several fronts during the First Balkan War. In 1913, following his return to Germany, he was appointed commanding officer of the Dragoner-Regiment Knigin Olga Nr. 25, and took the field with this unit as Oberstleutnant at the outbreak of World War I. In 1915 he was promoted to Oberst.In February 1916 he was selected for secondment to the now allied Ottoman Army and assigned to Baghdad, as chief of staff to Feldmarschall von der Goltz. There he became chief of staff of the Ottoman Sixth Army, with the Ottoman rank of Mirliva and the accompanying title of Pasha. He participated in the successful siege of Kut-al-Mara and subsequent events in Mesopotamia up to late summer 1916. Infected by unclean drinking water, he suffered severe illness and was transported to Aleppo to recuperate. Gleich subsequently wrote a detailed memoir of his military experiences during 1912-16, which was published in 1921 as Vom Balkan nach Bagdad: militrisch-politische Erinnerungen an dem Orient (From the Balkans to Baghdad: military-political recollections of the East).In January 1917 he commanded the Infanterie-Regiment Kaiser Wilhelm Nr. 120 on the Western Front, fighting on the Somme. As commander of Infanterie-Brigade Nr. 18, he played a part in the fighting at Arras and Cambrai, and during the Spring Offensive. In 1918 he was promoted to Generalmajor and, on his request, retired from active duty in 1919.------Historiography and literature of ottoman artHistorical accounts about Vrana's life and deeds are scarce beyond some references about him in official correspondence of the time and works which focus mainly on his role in the Albanian-Turkish Wars. Marin Barleti, who was a contemporary of Vrana, is one of the first authors who mention Vrana in his History of Scanderbeg in 1510. Paolo Giovio and Paolo Angelo examined Vrana's role in Gjergj Kastrioti's wars in their works in the first half of the 16th century. Giammaria Biemmi in his 1742 Istoria di Giorgio Castrioto some more details about his background - like a parental lineage to an Altisferi family which he links to the Zaharia family. His work, which Biemmi claimed to be based on an unknown manuscript is considered a forgery in modern scholarship like many of his other works.In oral literature - epic poetry and tales - he is well-remembered for his involvement in the Skanderbeg's battles. Much of the corpus of these oral tales focus on the siege of Kruj. Geographically, in Albania these tales are found in an area from Kruj to the Kuks region in the north and the Upper Reka to the west. In written literature, Vrana inspired the character Vran in the epic poem Scanderbeide by Margherita Sarrocchi. The definitive edition of Scanderbeide was published in 1623. Among the Arbreshe, the community of Albanian refugees that settled in Italy after Ottoman conquest, Vrana has been a particularly popular subject. In the 19th century, Gavril Dara the Younger in Knga e Sprasme e Bals portrays Vrana with much affection as a high lord (zot i math).In 1967, a year dedicated to the memory of Scanderbeg in literature and visual arts in the People's Socialist Republic of Albania, a bust of Vrana was created by local sculptor from Kruj, Sabri Tui. In the same year, he was the subject of the painting Vrana Konti n kshtjelln e Krujs (Vrana Konti in the fortress of Kruj) by Skender Kamberi.