Introduction to Table Glass,Life in the Northern Territory of Table Glass

Life in the Northern Territory of table glass

Ryan and her husband moved to the Northern Territory from Adelaide in 1873 after hearing reports of gold discoveries in the north. She arrived in Darwin, then known as Palmerston, on board the Birchgrove just three years after the town was established by George Goyder. The couple travelled straight to the gold fields near Pine Creek with hundreds of other prospectors. Upon realising that 'liquid gold' was also a lucrative opportunity, the Ryans leased the Miners' Arms Hotel. Over the next 15 years, Ryan earned the reputation of keeping the "best table out of Darwin".

Ryan separated from her husband in 1877 taking out a formal protection order against him in 1881 for her earnings, "owing to his threats,

cruelty and drunkenness". She granted him 50 and he left Palmerston shortly after stating he had "had quite enough of the Territory and the people in it".

After the divorce, Ryan consolidated her holdings, buying up land in Palmerston and taking on several mining leases. As the economy cooled, Ryan decided to build a hotel in 1888. Her plans were stalled after sustaining a serious injury falling from her horse, which kicked her in the head. But two years later she succeeded in building a prestigious two-storey hotel in Palmerston which was first named the Royal, but was changed to the North Australian at the last minute. It was eventually named the Victoria Hotel. It opened in 1890 to wide acclaim:

"It only remains to be said that the interior arrangements are of the very best the furnishings of the bedrooms and parlours are both elaborate and tasteful."

She was a sporting enthusiast and owned several racehorses, securing much business for her hotel. She was known to take unpopular position on issues in the town, such as campaigning against the restriction of Chinese immigrants. She had depended on Chinese labour for the construction of and domestic work in her hotel.

Also in 1890, Ryan also applied for a lease to run the Union Hotel, at a mining lease called the Union, in the same year.

In 1896 Ryan relinquished her lease on the North Australian taking out one instead on the nearby Club Hotel, located on the site of the Hotel Darwin. Both pubs were severely damaged in the 1897 cyclone the following year.

Ryan took up the management of the North Australia Hotel, known at this stage as the Victoria Hotel, again in 1901, returning the hotel to the centre of social life in Darwin by establishing a dressmaker adjacent to the hotel and through the hosting of motor launches. The Victoria Hotel was taken under Federal control in 1915, after the Northern Territory separated from South Australia and was transferred to the Commonwealth, in an attempt to control alcohol consumption in the town.


Site of table glass

FortBy far the most visible structure of the site is its centrally-placed fort. The fort is square in shape and has a rounded tower. It has two complexes and an outer wall covering an area of 2.25 hectares. The joint QMA-University of Wales Trinity Saint David Archaeological Mission ascribed three phases of construction to the fort. Phase 1 marked the fort's original construction. It was likely deserted for a brief period of time before phase 2 witnessed the reconstruction of the fort, marking the peak of the fort's area. In phase 3, the fort was significantly downgraded.

A residential quarter, a garden, two wells and a section containing the remains of what was likely an animal pen are found in the two complexes. Some of these features were added in phase 2.

Dating back to the 16th century, there is debate over who constructed the fort, with the two main contenders being the Portuguese and the Ottomans. Construction methods of the fort appear to resemble Portuguese forts at the time, bearing little resemblance to Ottoman forts. Archaeologist Andrew Petersen, who was a key figure in the excavation team from 2011 to 2014, speculated that it was the Portuguese who were responsible for building the fort. Petersen alluded to the lavish and grandiose scale of the fort, pointing out its functional limitations which were not present in Ottoman forts of that period. He also hypothesized that, after being abandoned by the Portuguese, it was rediscovered by Kuwaiti Bedouin tribes in the 1700s who refurbished the fort to protect them from attacks.

MosquesSituated on the seafront north of the fort is a mosque, which was uncovered from 2011 to 2013. This mosque is thought to have been built in the 1700s. Another structure west of the fort that is yet to be excavated is also purported to be a mosque.

WarehouseA structure dubbed the warehouse comprises eight adjacent rooms. Few artifacts were recovered from the premises, although a date press (madbasa) was uncovered.

TombRoughly 500 meters eastward from the fort is a tomb. Originally, the site accommodated a midden, but this midden was eventually converted into a raised entrance once a small rectangular building was built next to it. Structural evidence indicates that it is likely this building did not have a roof. It is not known who was buried in the tomb.

WorkshopLarge quantities of bitumen, pottery, glass, metalwork and marine shells have been found in an excavated structure known as the workshop. A tentative description of this structure offered by the joint QMA-University of Wales Trinity Saint David team is that it previously served as a boat repair shop.


Rivers on Scottish islands of table glass

Most of the Scottish islands are too small to maintain watercourses of any great length or size, and are frequently indented by numerous long bays and inlets which further break up the landscape. However a disproportionate number of their watercourses bear the name 'river', though many are relatively tiny.

ArranThe numerous small watercourses on Arran are listed anticlockwise from Brodick.Glencloy Water

Glenrosa Water

South Sannox Burn

North Sannox Burn

Abhainn Mr

Iorsa Water

Machrie Water

Black Water (upper reaches known as Clauchan Water)

Sliddery Water

Torrylinn Water (also known as Kilmory Water)

Benlister Burn

Glenashdale Burn (a.k.a. Allt Delphin)Skye and the Inner HebridesIslay

There are numerous watercourses on Islay, many of which though short are termed 'rivers'. They are listed anticlockwise from Port Askaig.Doodilmore River

Gortanaoid River

Saligo River

River Drolsay

River Sorn

River Laggan

Duich River (L) (upper reaches known as Torra River)

Kilennan River (L)

Barr River

Machrie River

Glenegedale River (L)

Kintra River

Kilbride River

Ardilistry River

Kintour River

Claggain RiverJura

There are numerous watercourses on Jura, some of which though short are termed 'rivers'. They are listed anticlockwise from Feolin Ferry.Corran River

Lussan River

Shian River

Glenbatrick RiverMull

There are numerous watercourses on Mull, some of which though short are termed 'rivers'.They are listed anticlockwise from Tobermory.Tobermory River

River Bellart

River B (Glencannel River flows into Loch B)

Scarisdale River

Coladoir River

Leidle River

Beach River

Lussa River

Scallastle River

River Forsa

Aros River

Ledmore River (Ls)

Allt an Lon Biolaireich (Rs)Rm

There are a number of watercourses on Rm, some of which are named as 'rivers'. They are listed anticlockwise from Kinloch.Kinloch River

Kilmory River

Abhainn Rangail

Dibidil RiverIsle of Skye

Listed anticlockwise around the coast from Kyleakin. Many small watercourses, which would in other areas be named as 'burn' or 'allt', bear the name 'river' in Skye.Broadford River

River Sligachan

Allt Dearg Mr

Varragill River

River Leasgeary

River Chracaig

Lealt River

Stenscholl River (upper reaches known as Kilmartin River)

River Brogaig

Kilmaluag River

River Rha

River Conon

River Hinnisdal

River Romesdal

River Haultin

River Snizort

Ln an Eireannaich (R)

Abhainn an Acha-leathain

Tungadal River

River Tora

Treaslane River

Bay River

River Horneval

Osdale River

Hamara River

Lorgill River

Dibidal River

Roskhill River

Caroy River

River Ose

Amar River

Sumardale River

River Drynoch

Viskigill Burn

River Talisker

Eynort River

River Brittle

Scavaig River

Abhainn Camas Fhionnairigh

Ord River

Kylerhea RiverOuter HebridesLewis

Abhainn Ghriais

Abhainn Lacasdail

Abhainn Ghrioda (Greeta River or River Creed)

Abhainn Arnoil

Abhainn BharabhaisOrkneyMainland

Burn of Ayreland

Mill Dam Burn, Shapinsay, Orkney IslandsShetlandMainland

Burn of Weisdale

Burn of Sandwater/Burn of Pettawater


Salamanders (Caudata) of table glass

PlethodontidaeOrder: Caudata.

Family: Plethodontidae

The Plethodontidae, or lungless salamanders, are a family of salamanders. Most species are native to the Western Hemisphere, from British Columbia to Brazil, although a few species are found in Sardinia, Europe south of the Alps, and South Korea.

A number of features distinguish the Plethodontids from other salamanders. Most significantly, they lack lungs, conducting respiration through their skin, and the tissues lining their mouths. Another distinctive feature is the presence of a vertical slit between the nostril and upper lip, known as the "naso-labial groove". The groove is lined with glands, and enhances the salamander's chemoreception. Due to their modest size and low metabolism, they are able to feed on prey such as collembola, which are usually too small for other terrestrial vertebrates. This gives them access to a whole ecological niche with minimal competition from other groups. They are by far the largest group of salamanders. There are about 380 species worldwide, of which 41 occur in Guatemala.

Oak forest salamander Bolitoglossa cuchumatana (Stuart, 1943) E

Doflein's salamander Bolitoglossa dofleini (Werner, 1903)

Dunn's climbing salamander Bolitoglossa dunni (Schmidt, 1933) EN

Engelhardt's climbing salamander Bolitoglossa engelhardti (Schmidt, 1936) EN

Yellow-legged climbing salamander Bolitoglossa flavimembris (Schmidt, 1936) EN

Yellow-belly climbing salamander Bolitoglossa flaviventris (Schmidt, 1936)

Franklin's climbing salamander Bolitoglossa franklini (Schmidt, 1936) EN

Hartweg's climbing salamander Bolitoglossa hartwegi Wake & Brame, 1969

Coban climbing salamander Bolitoglossa helmrichi (Schmidt, 1936) E

Jackson's climbing salamander Bolitoglossa jacksoni Elias, 1984 E

Lincoln's climbing salamander Bolitoglossa lincolni (Stuart, 1943)

Meliana climbing salamander Bolitoglossa meliana Wake & Lynch, 1982 E, EN

Mexican climbing salamander Bolitoglossa mexicana Dumril, Bibron & Dumril, 1854

Cope's climbing salamander Bolitoglossa morio (Cope, 1869) E

Muller's climbing salamander Bolitoglossa mulleri (Brocchi, 1883) VU

Southern banana salamander Bolitoglossa occidentalis Taylor, 1941

O'Donnell's climbing salamander Bolitoglossa odonnelli (Stuart, 1943) EN

Bolitoglossa resplendens McCoy & Walker, 1966

Long-nosed climbing salamander Bolitoglossa rostrata (Brocchi, 1883) VU

Northern banana salamander Bolitoglossa rufescens (Cope, 1869)

Salvin's salamander Bolitoglossa salvinii (Gray, 1868) EN

Stuart's salamander Bolitoglossa stuarti Wake & Brame, 1969 EN

Yucatan salamander Bolitoglossa yucatana (Peters, 1882)

Finca Chiblac salamander Bradytriton silus Wake & Elias, 1983 E, CR

Monzon's hidden salamander Cryptotriton monzoni (Campbell & Smith, 1998) E, CR

Baja Verapaz salamander Cryptotriton veraepacis (Lynch & Wake, 1978) E, EN

Wake's hidden salamander Cryptotriton wakei (Campbell & Smith, 1998)

Common bromeliad salamander Dendrotriton bromeliacius (Schmidt, 1936) EN

Cuchumatanes bromeliad salamander Dendrotriton cuchumatanus (Lynch & Wake, 1975) E, CR

Guatemalan bromeliad salamander Dendrotriton rabbi (Lynch & Wake, 1975) EN

Cerro Pozo de Agua moss salamander Nototriton brodiei Campbell & Smith, 1998

Stuart's moss salamander Nototriton stuarti Wake & Campbell, 2000 E

Long-limbed salamander Nyctanolis pernix Elias & Wake, 1983 EN

White-crowned worm salamander Oedipina elongata (Schmidt, 1936)

Chimaltenango worm salamander Oedipina ignea Stuart, 1952

Narrow-footed worm salamander Oedipina stenopodia Brodie & Campbell, 1993 E, EN

Taylor's worm salamander Oedipina taylori Stuart, 1952

Brown false brook salamander Pseudoeurycea brunnata Bumzahem & Smith, 1955 CR

Jalpa false brook salamander Pseudoeurycea exspectata Stuart, 1954 E, CR

Goebel's false brook salamander Pseudoeurycea goebeli (Schmidt, 1936) EN

Royal false brook salamander Pseudoeurycea rex (Dunn, 1921)

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