Why There Is a Need to Have a Continual Flow of Water in the Condenser During Distillation?

The water is probably cooler than the air and probably cooler than the substances being distilled. The idea is when the vapor of each distillate rises it will hit the area of the column with the water flow and cool and condense and is now more easily collected. But this also depends on your particular setup of distillation column.

1. In distillation column design, is the number of stages equal to the number of plates/trays?

You can use any method to find the number of theoretical stages /plates/trays like mccabe and thiele , Underwood etc...When you find the number of theoretical stages by using above method it assume that your tray efficiency is equal to 100%.So if you would like to find actual number of stages then devide number of theoretical stages by tray efficiency.So,Actual number of stages=Number of theoretical stages/efficiency of trayExample:-If number of theoretical stages as per McCabe and thiele method is 10 and efficiency of tray is 0. 5 then actual number of stages is????Actual number of stages= 10/0.5Actual numbet of stages=20.I think you got your answerThank you...-Ravi KasundraIn distillation column design, is the number of stages equal to the number of plates/trays?

2. Explain/Describe the process of Fractional Distillation in Crude Oil?

For me, you can ask Lerynne Angela Biton, a scientist very good in this topic. She mastered mannalon dayta! Mweehehe. Agpaysu la

3. give me three examples of distillation?

Distillation From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate 14: Heating (Oil/sand) bath 15: Stiring means e.g. magnetic follower (shown), anti-bumping granules or mechanical stirrer 16: Cooling bath.Distillation is a method of separating chemical substances based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. Distillation usually forms part of a larger chemical process, and is thus referred to as a unit operation. Commercially, distillation has a number of uses. It is used to separate crude oil into more fractions for specific uses such as transport, power generation and heating. Water is distilled to remove impurities, such as salt from sea water. Air is distilled to separate its components - notably oxygen, nitrogen and argon - for industrial use. Distillation of fermented solutions has been used since ancient times to produce distilled beverages with a higher alcohol content. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Applications of distillation 3 Idealized distillation model 3.1 Batch distillation 3.2 Continuous distillation 3.3 General improvements 4 Laboratory scale distillation 4.1 Simple distillation 4.2 Fractional distillation 4.3 Steam distillation 4.4 Vacuum distillation 4.5 Air-sensitive vacuum distillation 4.6 Short path distillation 4.7 Other types 5 Azeotropic distillation 5.1 Breaking an azeotrope with unidirectional pressure manipulation 5.2 Pressure-swing Distillation 6 Industrial distillation 7 Distillation in food processing 7.1 Distilled beverages 8 References 9 External links 10 Gallery [edit] History Early forms of distillation were known to Babylonian alchemists in Mesopotamia (in what is now Iraq) from at least the 2nd millennium BC. Distillation was later known to Greek alchemists from the 1st century AD, and the later development of large-scale distillation apparatus occurred in response to demands for spirits. Hypathia of Alexandria is credited with having invented an early distillation apparatus, and the first exact description of apparatus for distillation is given by Zosimos of Alexandria in the fourth century. Distillation by retort using the alembic.In the 8th century, alchemists in the Middle East produced distillation processes to purify chemical substances for industrial purposes such as isolating natural esters (perfumes) and producing pure alcohol. The first among them was the Persian Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) circa 800 AD, who is credited with the invention of numerous chemical apparatus and processes that are still in use today. In particular, his alembic was the first still with retorts which could fully purify chemicals, a precursor to the pot still, and its design has served as inspiration for modern micro-scale distillation apparatus such as the Hickman stillhead. Petroleum was first distilled by another Persian, al-Razi (Rhazes) in the 9th century, for producing kerosene, while steam distillation was invented by Avicenna in the early 11th century, for producing essential oils. In 1500, German alchemist Hieronymus Braunschweig published Liber de arte destillandi (The Book of the Art of Distillation) the first book on the subject, followed in 1512 by a much expanded version. In 1651, John French published The Art of Distillation the first major English compendium of practice, though it has been claimed that much of it derives from Braunschweig's work. This includes diagrams with people in them showing the industrial rather than bench scale of the operation. As alchemy evolved into the science of chemistry, vessels called retorts became used for distillations. Both alembics and retorts are forms of glassware with long necks pointing to the side at a downward angle which acted as air-cooled condensers to condense the distillate and let it drip downward for collection. Later, copper alembics were invented. Riveted joints were often kept tight by using various mixtures, for instance a dough made of rye flour. These alembics often featured a cooling system around the beak, using cold water for instance, which made the condensation of alcohol more efficient. These were called pot stills. Today, the retorts and pot stills have been largely supplanted by more efficient distillation methods in most industrial processes. However, the pot still is still widely used for the elaboration of some fine alcohols such as cognac, Scotch whisky and some vodkas. Pot stills made of various materials (wood, clay, stainless steel) are also used by bootleggers in various countries. Small pot stills are also sold for the domestic production of flower water or essential oils. In the early 19th century the basics of modern techniques including pre-heating and reflux were developed, particularly by the French, then in 1830 a British Patent was issued to Aeneas Coffey for a whiskey distillation column, which worked continuously and may be regarded as the archetype of modern petrochemical units. In 1877, Ernest Solvay was granted a U.S. Patent for a tray column for ammonia distillation and the same and subsequent years saw developments of this theme for oil and spirits. With the emergence of chemical engineering as a discipline at the end of the 19th century, scientific rather than empirical methods could be applied. The developing petroleum industry in the early 20th century provided the impetus for the development of accurate design methods such as the McCabe-Thiele method and the Fenske equation. [edit] Applications of distillation The application of distillation can roughly be divided in four groups: laboratory scale, industrial distillation, distillation of herbs for perfumery and medicinals (herbal distillate) and food processing. The latter two are distinct from the former two, in that in the distillation is not used as a true purification method, but more to transfer all volatiles from the source materials to the distillate. The main difference between laboratory scale distillation and industrial distillation is that laboratory scale distillation is often performed batch-wise, whereas industrial distillation often occurs continuously. In batch distillation, the composition of the source material, the vapors of the distilling compounds and the distillate change during the distillation. In batch distillation, a still is charged (supplied) with a batch of feed mixture, which is then separated into its component fractions which are collected sequentially from most volatile to less volatile, with the bottoms (remaining least or non-volatile fraction) removed at the end. The still can then be recharged and the process repeated. In continuous distillation, the source materials, vapors and distillate are kept at a constant composition by carefully replenishing the source material and removing fractions from both vapor and liquid in the system. This results in a better control of the separation process. [edit] Idealized distillation model The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid. The normal boiling point of a liquid is the special case at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the ambient atmospheric pressure. A liquid in a container at a pressure below atmospheric pressure will boil at temperature lower than the normal boiling point, and a liquid in a container at a pressure higher than atmospheric pressure will boil at a temperature higher than the normal boiling point. In other words, all liquids have an infinite number of boiling points. It is a common misconception that in a liquid mixture at a given pressure, each component boils at the boiling point corresponding to the given pressure and the vapors of each component will collect separately and purely. This, however, does not occur even in an idealized system. Idealized models of distillation are essentially governed by Raoult's law and Dalton's law. Raoult's law assumes that a component contributes to the total vapor pressure of the mixture in proportion to its percentage of the mixture and its vapor pressure when pure. If one component changes another component's vapor pressure, or if the volatility of a component is dependent on its percentage in the mixture, the law will fail. Dalton's law states that the total vapor pressure is the sum of the vapor pressures of each individual component in the mixture. When a multi-component liquid is heated, the vapor pressure of each component will rise, thus causing the total vapor pressure to rise. When the total vapor pressure reaches the pressure surrounding the liquid, boiling occurs and liquid turns to gas throughout the bulk of the liquid. Note that a given mixture has one boiling point at a given pressure, when the components are mutually soluble. The idealized model is accurate in the case of chemically similar liquids, such as benzene and toluene. In other cases, severe deviations from Raoult's law and Dalton's law are observed, most famously in the mixture of ethanol and water. These compounds, when heated together, form an azeotrope, in which the boiling temperature of the mixture is lower than the boiling temperature of each separate liquid. Virtually all liquids, when mixed and heated, will display azeotropic behaviour. Although there are computational methods that can be used to estimate the behavior of a mixture of arbitrary components, the only way to obtain accurate vapor-liquid equilibrium data is by measurement. It is not possible to completely pur

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How to Teach Image Processing and Computer Graphics to a Blind Student?
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